Birds that are old residents of the Red Data Book

The Red List includes many species of birds that are threatened with extinction due to various factors. Here are a few of the Red Book’s long-lived birds with descriptions, characteristics, habitat and causes of extinction:

1. Sturgeon (White Crane)

– Scientific name: Grus leucogeranus.
– Description and characteristics. The crane is a large bird, reaching 140 cm in height, with a wingspan of up to 230 cm. It has all-white plumage, except for the black fly feathers.
– Habitat. Inhabits swampy areas of northern Siberia. Overwinters in India and China.
– Causes of extinction. Main causes include habitat destruction, poaching and climate change affecting the wetlands where they breed.

2. Beringia snipe (Snipe)

– Scientific name: Gallinago megala.
– Description and characteristics. Medium-sized wading bird with brown plumage, characteristic stripes on the head and a long straight beak.
– Habitat. Nests in wetlands of Alaska and eastern Siberia, migrating to southeast Asia for wintering.
– Causes of extinction. The main threats are habitat loss and degradation due to agriculture and urbanisation.

3. Black stork

– Scientific name: Ciconia nigra
– Description and characteristics. Large bird with black plumage on back and white belly, long red legs and beak.
– Habitat. Inhabits forested and swampy areas of Europe, Asia and partly Africa. Nests in trees and rocks.
– Causes of extinction. The main causes of decline are deforestation, pollution of water bodies and human disturbance.

4. Osprey

– Scientific name: Pandion haliaetus.
– Description and characteristics. Medium-sized bird of prey with a dark upper part and white lower body, long wings and a predatory beak.
– Habitat. Widespread worldwide near freshwater and salt water bodies.
– Causes of extinction. Threats include water pollution from pesticides, destruction of nesting sites, and illegal capture.

5. White-billed Diver

– Scientific name: Gavia adamsii.
– Description and characteristics. Large waterfowl with black and white plumage, long body and beak.
– Habitat. Nests in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia, winters on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
– Causes of extinction. Major threats include oil pollution in the seas, climate change that affects ice conditions, and human disturbance.

These bird species are important components of ecosystems and their conservation requires global efforts to protect habitats, regulate hunting and poaching, and reduce the impacts of climate change and pollution.

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